It is listed there as "Auxiliary Flag of the C.S.S. A short time later, however, the Confederate Navy Department revised these regulations, changing the Navy's battle ensign proportions to a 2:3 ratio. It was created as a raiding vessel, one that would be light and fast. The ship was purposely commissioned about a mile off Terceira Island in international waters on 24 August 1862: All the men from Agripinna and Bahama had been transferred to the quarter deck of Enrica, where her 24 officers, some of them Southerners, stood in full dress uniform. An officer in the boat, seeing that Llewellyn was about to be left aboard the stricken Alabama, shouted "Doctor, we can make room for you." Christened on a Sunday, her demise also came on a Sunday, 22 months later on June 19, 1864. It was made without the usual white stripes outlining the diagonal blue bars. This battle ensign's overall dimensions are different from the Confederate regulations' required 2:3 ratio. The ironclad frigate French battleship La Gloire was in the English Channel, near Cherbourg, during the battle between Alabama and Kearsarge. The fleeing sailors would find a safe refuge in England and miss the rest of the war. Perhaps the most courageous and selfless act during the Alabama's last moments involved the ship's assistant surgeon, Dr. David Herbert Llewellyn. The plan went well and on August 24, 1862, the CSS Alabama was met at sea to be outfitted as a war ship. Although the Union had under their belt, a gigantic industrial backbone that could absorb an immense amount of lost ships, this was inflicting the war. 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In 2002 a diving expedition raised the ship's bell along with more than 300 other artifacts, including more cannons, structural samples, tableware, ornate commodes, and numerous other items that reveal much about life aboard the Confederate warship. Ironically, a decade before the beginning of the Civil War, Captain Semmes had observed: "(Commerce raiders) are little better than licensed pirates; and it behooves all civilized nations [...] to suppress the practice altogether. From the several color photo available on the Internet, this ensign appears to have an approximate hoist-to-fly aspect ratio of 1 : 2.5 (i.e, very rectangular). 1st Cutter." On June 11, 1864 the CSS Alabama was docked at the French port and readied for a face-lift. Finding little in the way of Union shipping, Alabama made its final two captures in late April in the form of Rockingham and Tycoon. While this ensign is in a remarkable state of preservation, its large size and delicate condition have made its up-close details and measurements unavailable. She then sailed south, arriving in the West Indies where she raised more havoc before finally cruising west into the Gulf of Mexico. For the rest of the year, the Alabama would sink or … R. Semmes, Typical 1:2 ratio Second National Flag (Stainless Banner) battle ensign design(adopted 1 May 1863). According to survivors, the two ships steamed on opposite courses in seven spiraling circles, moving southwesterly with the 3-knot current, each commander trying to cross the bow of his opponent to deliver a heavy raking fire. After three days of back-breaking work by the three ship's crews, Enrica was transformed into a naval cruiser, designated a commerce raider, for the Confederate States of America. Both of the British Royal Navy pattern 32-pounders were identified: One lies inside the starboard hull, forward of the boilers, adjacent to the forward Downton pump. Pennants would have flown atop her main mast in two forms: daylight or after sunset. Over the next 22 months the Alabama cruised the whaling grounds around the Azores, the shipping lanes along the eastern seaboard of the U.S., the Carribean, the Brazilian coast, along South Africa, the Indian Ocean, South China Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The rest would be recruited from among captured crews of raided ships or from friendly ports-of-call. After numerous volleys the two ships circled each other like two angry dogs awaiting the chance to attack. For nearly two years, CSS Alabama roamed the world’s seas. The Association CSS Alabama and the U.S. Navy/Naval Historical Center signed on March 23, 1995 an official agreement accrediting Association CSS Alabama as operator of the archaeological investigation of the remains of the ship. At the beginning of Alabama's raiding ventures, the newly commissioned cruiser may have been forced, out of necessity, to fly the only battle ensign available to Captain Semmes: an early 1861, 7-star First National Flag, possibly the same battle ensign flown aboard his previous command, the smaller commerce raider CSS Sumter. The practice of using primary and secondary naval flags after the British tradition was common practice for the Confederacy, linked as she was by both heritage and economy to the British Isles. Many of the artifacts are now housed in the Underwater Archaeology Branch, Naval History & Heritage Command conservation lab. When the men began to shout "Hear! [6] 86.1893.1 (PN10149-10150)." The real ship sunk/burned/captured over 60 Union merchant ships before it was sunk be the USS Kearsarge off the coast of France. As he helped wounded men into the Alabama's only two functional lifeboats, an able bodied sailor attempted to enter one, which was already full. All together, she burned 65 Union vessels of various types, most of them merchant ships. The CSS Alabama was commissioned on August 24, 1862. The Alabama was built for speed rather than battle. Typical First National Flag (Stars and Bars) 7-star battle ensign design. (4 May 1861 – 21 May 1861). The Alabama was done with her repairs and steamed out to meet the Kearsarge on June 19, 1863. As Alabama sank, the injured Semmes threw his sword into the sea, depriving Kearsage's commander Captain John Ancrum Winslow of the traditional surrender ceremony of having it handed over to him as victor. Semmes then offered signing money and double wages, paid in gold, and additional prize money to be paid by the Confederate congress for all destroyed Union ships. MV Maersk Alabama is a container ship which was put into operation for the very first time in the year 1998 under the Danish registry. It is unknown which versions of all the above flags were flown at specific intervals during Alabama's seven raiding campaigns. The additional 8th star is tucked into the lower left corner (and in the lower right corner on the opposite side), giving the canton's layout a unique, asymmetrical appearance. It still survives and is held by the Alabama Department of Archives and History. Their white-bordered diagonal saltieres were a medium blue color rather than the dark blue seen on the Stainless Banner. This ensign was being sold by the grandson of its second owner, who had originally purchased it from the granddaughter of a USS Kearsarge sailor. Between the summer of 1862 and the spring of 1864, the Alabama captured 65 vessels flying the U.S. flag and sank one Union warship. (Her gun ports had been left open and the broadside cannon were still run out, appearing to come to bear on Kearsarge.) The CSS Alabama, captained by Mobile’s Raphael Semmes, was sunk at the end of a fierce naval engagement with the USS Kearsarge off the coast of Cherbourg, France.. In late 1861, conventional wisdom, North and South, posited that he who control Hampton Roads in Virginia controlled the fate of the nation. CSS Alabama had captured or destroyed dozens of Union merchant - ERG7BG from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. In 1995, researchers discovered the wreck of the Confederate Navy’s submarine, the H.L. USS Kearsarge initially stood off not moving to assist the crew. This Second National Flag is huge and made of pure silk, giving it an elegant appearance. With that the cruiser became Confederate States Steamer Alabama. No further information on this ensign or how it survived is available at this time; those details will be added when available. It was concealed behind 1-inch deal-boards painted black to match the upper hull's color. No heavy guns that were the standard for warships of the Civil War on the Alabama, and this was to be her downfall. The new Confederate cruiser was powered by both sail and by two John Laird Sons and Company 300 horsepower (220 kW) horizontal steam engines,[7] driving a single, Griffiths-type, twin-bladed brass screw. Alabama: A Virtual Exhibit, Marshall University, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/CSS_Alabama?oldid=4511760, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, "Aide Toi, Et Dieu T'Aidera," (Help yourself and God will help you), 2 × 300 HP horizontal steam engines, auxiliary sails, 6 x 32 lb (15 kg) cannons, 1 x 110 lb (50 kg) cannon, 1 x 68 lb (31 kg) cannon, List of Officers Of The Confederate States Steamer Alabama, Delaney, Norman C. "'Old Beeswax': Raphael Semmes of the Alabama.". Roberts, Arthur C., M. D. "Reconstructing USS Kearsarge, 1864," Silver Spring, MD., Vol. Know more about its story inside the article. Captain.". Because Alabama was forced to replace several of her original small boats lost at different times during her lengthy cruise, this is likely a larger replacement boat ensign. This ensign was given to Willam Anderson, whose ship chandler company made repairs on CSS Alabama, shortly before she made her fateful return voyage to Cherbourg, France. It was last flown, along with other historic flags, during a ceremony held on the parade ground at Fort Pulaski, GA, sometime during 1937. Two Star and Bars battle ensigns, labelled as having belonged to Alabama, also still exist. The Battle of Cherbourg, or sometimes the Battle off Cherbourg or the Sinking of CSS Alabama, was a single-ship action fought during the American Civil War between a United States Navy warship, USS Kearsarge, and a Confederate States Navy warship, CSS Alabama, on … That ship was the Kearsarge. The Confederacy awarded him posthumously the Southern Cross of Honor. When Semmes returned to the Confederacy from England, he brought this ceremonial Stainless Banner with him. The fledgling Confederate Navy therefore adopted and used jacks, commissioning pennants, battle ensigns, small boat ensigns, designating flags, and signal flags aboard its warships during the Civil War. Alabama's naval jack design changed (second and third illustrations, above) when the Confederacy adopted the Stainless Banner Second National Flag (see that section, below). Her lines were symmetrical and fine; her material of the best. Upon completion of the reading, musicians that assembled from among the three ships' crews began to play the tune "Dixie" just as the quartermaster finished hauling down Enrica's British colors. Following her commissioning as CSS Alabama, Bulloch then returned to Liverpool to continue his secret work for the Confederate Navy. But even the ship’s unparalleled success had its Waterloo, and for the Confederate commerce raider, that was Cherbourg, France, 150 years ago today. In addition, Alabama's too rapid rate-of-fire resulted in frequent poor gunnery, with many of her shots going too high, thus sealing the fate of the Confederate raider. One such early Stars and Bars battle ensign was salvaged from Alabama's floating debris, following her sinking by the Kearsarge. During the confusion of battle, five more rounds were fired at Alabama after her colors were struck. For the rest of the year, the Alabama would sink or burn 29 Union commercial ships. Little did Captain Semmes know, but the Union had sent a tag-along to follow the Alabama overseas. In all, the CSS Alabama managed to capture 65 Union merchantmen and board a … This agreement established a precedent for international cooperation in archaeological research and in the protection of a unique historic shipwreck. According to survivors, both ships fired volleys at each other until one was damaged and ceased it’s firing. After destroying another 40 Union merchant ships, the Alabama started to display the ravages of all those raids. As Kearsarge turned to meet her opponent, Alabama opened fire. She was sunk in June 1864 by USS Kearsarge at the Battle of Cherbourg outside the port of Cherbourg, France. [13] Captain Winslow was forced to stand by helplessly and watch Deerhound spirit away to England his much sought after adversary, Captain Semmes and his surviving shipmates. The most successful and feared Confederate commerce raider of the war, the CSS Alabama, sinks after a spectacular battle off the coast of France with the USS Kearsarge. Coordinates: 49°45′09″N 1°41′42″W / 49.7525°N 1.695°W / 49.7525; -1.695, The First Confederate Navy Jack, 1861–1863, The Second Confederate Navy Jack, 1863–1865, Southern Cross of Honor awarded for valor, Wilson, Walter E. and Gary L. McKay (2012). ORDNANCE CSS Alabama was outfitted with eight cannon: a Blakely 7-inch 100-pounder rifled cannon, a 68-pounder smoothbore, and six 32-pounder broadside cannons. Deck scene Cruiser Alabama in August, 1863 - Lts Armstrong and Sinclair at Sinclair's 32 pounder station[9], Captain Raphael Semmes, Alabama's commanding officer, standing aft of the mainsail by his ship's aft 8-inch smooth bore gun during her visit to Cape Town in August 1863. Naval Museum opens with All-Star Franco-American Reception", http://www.astrococktail.com/PDF/CNHSnewsletters/CNHS9.pdf, http://www.archive.org/stream/steamshipsstoryo00fletuoft#page/175/mode/1up, http://www.csa-dixie.com/liverpool_dixie/alabama.htm, http://archive.org/stream/1862appletonsan02newyuoft#page/n388/mode/1up, "Archaeological Investigation of the Confederate Commerce Raider CSS Alabama 2002", http://www.hnsa.org/conf2004/papers/watts.htm, "CSS Alabama (1862-1864) - Selected Views", http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-us-cs/csa-sh/csash-ag/alabama.htm, http://www.archive.org/details/InTheLandOfAfternoon, http://books.google.com/books?id=yc6tCGTADe8C&pg=PA9&lpg=PA9&dq=Aide+Toi+Dieu+T'Aidera+Alabama+ships+wheel&source=web&ots=0Sgz9kAAsO&sig=g13bemOVqywG4h28NFsCOMjuWQk&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result#PPA13,M1, http://www.lib.ua.edu/libraries/hoole/digital/cssala/llewllyn.htm, http://archive.org/stream/1862appletonsan02newyuoft#page/n607/mode/1up, http://www.mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=81820#1496516, "South African Scout Campfire songbook: South African songs", http://www.scouting.org.za/songs/southafrican.html, http://books.google.com/books?id=WhVCAAAAIAAJ&dq=%22two+years+on+the+alabama%22&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0, C.S.S. Such presentations of ceremonial colors were uncommon to ships' captains of the Confederate Navy, but a few were known to have received such honors. The shell did not explode as the gunpowder was damp due to water leaks in the hull. While their provenance and specific details of these two Alabama ensigns are currently unavailable, such information will be added to this section when available. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. Both heavy cannon were recovered in 1994. The Confederate cruiser claimed 65 prizes valued at nearly $6,000,000 (approximately $123,000,000 in today's dollars[citation needed]); in 1862 alone 28 were claimed. However, virtually all surviving Confederate jacks show their proportions and specific details varied, despite the Confederate Navy regulation's precise requirements. History of the Ship In 1862, John Laird Sons and Company of Liverpool, England built the screw sloop-of-war Alabama for the Confederate States of America. "James D. Bulloch; Secret Agent and Mastermind of the Confederate Navy". In her twenty two month life, the CSS Alabama never touched home soil. Buy Css Alabama Sinks 1864 Nthe Sinking Of The Css Alabama By Uss Kearsarge Off Cherbourg France 19 June online now. It was made using 120 fathoms (720 feet) of 1.7-inch (43 mm) single link iron chain and covered hull spaces 49 feet (15 m), six-inches (152 mm) long by 6-feet, 2-inches deep. June 19,1864: The USS Kearsarge sinks the CSS Alabama in the Battle of Cherbourg. When this did not succeed, Semmes changed his tack. It is 64-inches high (hoist) by 112-inches long (fly), a proportion of 5:9, and its dark blue canton contains eight white stars, 8-inches (203 mm) high, in an unusual arrangement: The stars are not organized in a circle but configured in three, centered, horizontal rows of two, then three, and finally two. I may earn a commission from the companies mentioned in this post via affiliate links to products or services associated with content in this article. Llewellyn shook his head and replied, "I will not peril the wounded." This nineteenth-century print depicts the encounter between the USS Hatteras, right, and the CSS Alabama near Galveston, Texas, on January 11, 1863, during the Civil War. 86.3766.1." While at his previous port-of-call, Winslow had telegraphed Gibraltar to send the old sloop-of-war USS St. Louis with provisions and to provide blockading assistance. Captain Semmes, while visiting friendly or neutral foreign ports-of-call, may have simply commissioned multiple new battle ensigns, naval jacks, and pennants, as needed, while refitting and reprovisioning his ship. Ge These ships were the lifeblood of the Union supply system. (A small number of these unusual 14-star national flags have survived to the modern era and are held in several Civil War archives.) The fore pivot was a heavy, long-range 100-pounder 7-inch (178 mm) Blakely rifle, the aft pivot a heavy, 8-inch (203 mm) smoothbore. On October 3, 1989, the United States and France signed an agreement recognizing this wreck as an important heritage resource of both nations and establishing a Joint French-American Scientific Committee for archaeological exploration. 290. There is surviving evidence, the captured 7-star jack of the ironclad CSS Atlanta, which strongly suggests all early Confederate naval jacks were actually a dark blue, matching the color of their battle ensigns' cantons. Kearsarge waited patiently until the range had closed to less than 1,000 yards (900 m). She then sailed for the East Indies, where she spent six months destroying seven more ships before finally redoubling the Cape of Good Hope en route to France. A second Stainless Banner ensign of South African origin was made and then presented to Alabama on one of her two port visits to Cape Town; it resides in the Tennessee State Museum according to their website. The south chose another friendly ally to help their cause and that was France. By late 1863, a new battle ensign, the Second National Flag of the Confederacy, also known as the Stainless Banner, was flying aboard Alabama. Its Southern Cross canton is oversize and rectangular, instead of square, and is roughly in a 1:2 aspect ratio. Accounts state that the Stainless Banner Second National Flag was flying high on a line attached to Alabama's mizzen gaff until just before her sinking off Cherbourg, France, in 1864. I beg she will not depart until I am ready to go out. Confederate agent Bulloch and the remaining seamen then returned to their respective ships for their return voyage to England. Built in England and manned by an English crew with Confederate officers, the CSS Alabama was the most successful and notorious Confederate raiding vessel of the Civil War. At the close of her losing fight with the Kearsarge, Alabama's battle ensign was ordered struck for the last time. The Alabama had been built through the efforts of James D. Bulloch, one of the more successful Confederate agents in Europe.He had placed orders for two ships soon after his arrival in Britain in June 1861. Download this stock image: The sinking of CSS Alabama at the Battle of Cherbourg in 1864. All together, Alabama conducted a total of seven expeditionary raids, spanning the globe, before heading back to France for refit and repairs and a date with destiny: Upon the completion of her seven expeditionary raids, Alabama had been at sea for 534 days out of 657, never visiting a single Confederate port. USS Kearsarge escaped imminent destruction. The Alabama immediately opened fire on the Kearsarge and the battle had commenced. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, pp. Did a radical new Confederate gunship foil McClellan’s plan to end the Civil War in 1862? Of the original 83 crewmen that signed on that day, many completed the full voyage. I have the honor to be Eventually after just over an hour of exchanging artillery fire, Alabama had received shot-holes beneath the waterline from Kearsarge ' s Dahlgren guns and began to sink. Captain Semmes then made a speech about the Southern cause to the assembled seamen, asking them to sign on for a voyage of unknown length and destiny. Even if both shots had penetrated Kearsarge's side, they would have completely missed her vital machinery. During her two-year career as a commerce raider, Alabama caused disorder and devastation across the globe for Union merchant shipping. Having no desire to see his worn-out ship rot away at a French dock while quarantined by Union warships, and given his instinctive aggressiveness and a long-held desire once again to engage his enemy, Captain Semmes chose to fight. Captain Raphael Semmes mounted a gun-carriage and read his commission from President Jefferson Davis, authorizing him to take command of the new cruiser. With Bulloch at his side, the new ship's captain, Raphael Semmes, left Liverpool on 13 August 1862 aboard the steamer Bahama to take command of the new cruiser. Whatever its blue color, later versions of Alabama's pre-1863 jack could have contained, like her ensign, 9, 11, 13, and up to 15 white, 5-pointed stars. The CSS Alabama was commissioned on August 24, 1862. Both of Alabama's pre-1863 commissioning pennants would have been similar to the designs used by the U. S. Navy. pp. [4] Union Captain Tunis A. M. Craven of the USS Tuscarora, which was in Southampton at the time, was tasked with intercepting the new ship without success. The rest of the crew of the Alabama escaped with the assistance of a French yacht, The Deerhound. The third surviving Stainless Banner is one of Alabama's original small boat ensigns. "—Raphael Semmes, 1851[18]. Between 21 May and 28 November 1861, six more Southern states seceded and joined the Confederacy. This hull armor had been installed in just three days, more than a year before, while Kearsarge was in port at the Azores. The English, who were Confederate sympathizers, throughout the entire war, built the ship. It became a deadly Southern warship. A second Blakely 32-pounder was identified outside the hull structure, immediately forward of the propeller and its lifting frame; the forward 32-pounder was recovered in 2000. The flag's dark blue canton was to be in a 1:1 (square) ratio and contain seven white, 5-pointed stars arranged in a circular layout. H.L. CSS Alabama fired a total of over 370 rounds during the fighting, it is not known how many Kearsarge fired but it is known that she fired much less than the rebels did. See more ideas about css alabama, uss kearsarge, kearsarge. A fourth surviving ensign appears, from various clues observed in on-line photos, to be roughly 36-inches x 54-inches. If it had done so, it would have seriously disabled Kearsarge's steering, possibly sinking the warship, and ending the contest. The first measures 67-inches x 114-inches (170-cms x 290-cms) and is located in South Africa at Cape Town's Bo-Kapp Museum. Alabama, Catalogue No. Report of Captain Winslow, U.S. Navy, commanding U.S.S. The goal of the south was to lay waste to the immense commercial capability of the north, and secure a wider passage for their own naval and commercial vessels. It was then raised over the dome of the first Confederate capitol in Montgomery, Alabama and aboard all Confederate Navy ships, where it flew until 26 May 1863, when it was replaced with a new Second National Flag design. In addition to the seven cannon, the wreck site contained shot, gun truck wheels, and brass tracks for the gun carriages; many of the brass tracks were recovered. One of the more interesting developments of the war was how the Alabama came to become such a pirate of the sea. His executive officer, First Lieutenant John M. Kell, is in the background, standing by the ship's wheel.[10]. CSS Alabama continued her cruise west across the Gulf of Mexico, reaching its western edge by mid January 1863. During all of Alabama's raiding ventures, captured ships' crews and passengers were never harmed, only detained until they could be placed aboard a neutral ship or placed ashore in a friendly or neutral port. It was built by Great Britain and was disguised as a supply ship while in British waters. The 68-pounder smoothbore was located aft, at the stern, immediately outside the starboard hull structure; it is possible that the remains of its truck and pivot carriage lie underneath the gun tube. John Mcintosh Kell, The Executive Officer Of The CSS Alabama. The Alabama is the subject of a sea shanty, '"Roll Alabama, roll'":[21], The Alabama's visit to Cape Town in 1863 has passed (with a slight spelling change) into South African folklore in the Afrikaans song, "Daar Kom die Alibama":[22]. I hope these will not detain me more than until to-morrow or the morrow morning at farthest. That rifled shell, however, failed to explode. Captain Raphael Semmes received reports that Galveston, Texas was taken by Union forces (see "War on the Periphery. This ensign was rescued from the sinking Alabama by W. P. Brooks, the cruiser's assistant-engineer. The Confederate cruiser claimed 65 prizes valued at nearly $6,000,000 (approximately $123,000,000 in today's dollars[citation needed]); in 1862 alone 28 were claimed. There, in January 1863, Alabama had her first military engagement. Kearsarge now had Alabama boxed-in with no place left to run. CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built in 1862 for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead on the River Mersey opposite Liverpool, England by John Laird Sons and Company. Alabama's British-made ordnance was composed of six broadside, 32-pounder, naval smoothbores and two larger and more powerful pivot cannons. The battle quickly turned against Alabama due to the superior gunnery displayed by Kearsarge and the deteriorated state of Alabama's contaminated powder and fuses. In 2007 it was offered for auction through Philip Weiss Auctions; multiple photos of both its sides are available at Weiss' liveauctioneers.com website. (28 November 1861 – May 1863). 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